Surveys | Research Results | Data

  • The 1992 IAS NZ Survey of Vaccinated vs. Unvaccinated Children
    In 1992 IAS conducted a survey on the health and vaccination status of New Zealand children. The questionnaires were distributed through IAS members and members friends and associates. Such studies normally have inherent biases. In this study almost all the children were breastfed and babies were generally breastfed for longer than the majority of New Zealand babies.


    Many of the families surveyed included both vaccinated and unvaccinated children, suggesting that the parents developed an awareness of vaccination issues over time. However, many of the respondents were not members of IAS and the split between vaccinated and unvaccinated children was remarkably even. A total of 245 surveys were returned, representing 245 families, with a total of 495 children surveyed. There were 226 vaccinated children and 269 unvaccinated children. The ages ranged from two weeks to 46 years. There were 273 males and 216 females. Families from throughout the country responded. These are the results.



Microbiome | Microbiota

  • External Infant Microbiome Influences
    Peris Mumbi Munyaka, Ehsan Khafipour and Jean-Eric Ghia

    External influence of early childhood establishment of gut microbiota and subsequent health implications

    This overview highlights some of the exposures during the pre- and postnatal time periods that are key in the colonization and development of the gastrointestinal microbiota of infants as well as some of the diseases or disorders that occur due to the pattern of initial gut colonization.

  • Diet and Infant Microbiome
    Nitya Jain and W. Allan Walker

    Diet and host–microbial crosstalk in postnatal intestinal immune homeostasis
    In this Review, we discuss the current state of knowledge regarding early-life nutrition, its effects on the microbiota and the consequences of diet-induced perturbation of the structure of the microbial community on mucosal immunity and disease susceptibility.

  • C-Section Impact on Microbiome
    Hedvig E Jakobsson, Thomas R Abrahamsson, Maria C Jenmalm, Keith Harris, Christopher Quince, Cecilia Jernberg, Bengt Björkstén, Lars Engstrand, Anders F Andersson

    Decreased gut microbiota diversity, delayed Bacteroidetes colonisation and reduced Th1 responses in infants delivered by Caesarean section.

  • Antiobiotics – Infancy and Microbiome
    Sebastian Zeissig & Richard S Blumberg

    Life at the beginning: perturbation of the microbiota by antibiotics in early life and its role in health and disease. This Commentary discusses how treatment with antibiotics in infancy shapes host immunity and influences susceptibility later in life to diseases mediated by the immune system.